Saturday, April 07, 2012

Turabian Cheat Sheet By Professor John Kreiss of APUS

Turabian Cheat Sheet 2.0

There is certainly a great deal of confusion regarding the appropriate formatting of footnotes and bibliographies. Chicago, Turabian, APA, MLA - which style guide ought you to use? APUS requires what they call Chicago/Turabian style guides. The two style guides are similar but not the same. I have opted to use the Turabian style guide in all my classes at APUS and to assist you with this, I have created what I call the Turabian Cheat Sheet 2.0 - it is called 2.0 since it is actually my second attempt at such an undertaking!

The information provided here is taken from the 7th Edition of Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), and while I make no claim to being comprehensive (you can buy Turabian at any bookstore), what I have included here seem to me to be the most common sort of formatting issues you will encounter in your writing.

One of the few things I learned in my Historical Methods class in graduate school (I say "few" because that course actually taught me very little) is that when it comes to footnotes and bibliographies - be consistent.
The object of a footnote is to direct your reader to the exact location of a passage, idea, or piece of data you have obtained from another source in the most direct manner possible. Turabian suggests that writers cite sources for four reasons: (1) to give credit, (2) to assure readers about the accuracy of your facts, (3) to show readers the research tradition that informs your work - we could almost call this historiography, and (4) to help readers follow or extend your research (133-34). Which brings up the question, when do we use citations? Again, here's what Turabian has to say: when you quote exact words from a source, when you paraphrase ideas associated with a specific source, or when you use any idea, data, or method attributable to any source you may have consulted (134).

The examples used here are what Turabian calls "notes-bibliography style" or simply "bibliography style," which is the most common form in the humanities. You must keep a sharp eye to the elements of each notation/entry as well as spacing, and punctuation. Sample footnotes and bibliography appear at the end.
F = footnote B = bibliography
Book: Single Author
NMorris Dickstein, Dancing in the Dark: A Cultural History of the Great Depression (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009), 38.
BDickstein, Morris. Dancing in the Dark: A Cultural History of the Great Depression. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009.
Book: Single Editor
NMichael J. Hogan, ed., Paths to Power: The Historiography of American Foreign Foreign Relations to 1941 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 96-101.
BHogan, Michael J., ed. Paths to Power: The Historiography of American Foreign Foreign Relations to 1941. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Book: Two Authors
NKai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 52.
BBird, Kai, and Martin J. Sherwin. American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
Book: Two Editors
NWilliamson Murray and Richard Hart Sinnreich, eds., The Past as Prologue: The Importance of History to the Military Profession (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 119.
BMurray, Williamson, and Richard Hart Sinnreich, eds. The Past as Prologue: The Importance of History to the Military Profession. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Book: Three Authors
NJoyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994), 185.
BAppleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth About History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Book: Three Editors
NWilliamson Murray, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein, eds.,  The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 579.
BMurray, Williamson, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein, eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Book: Edition Number
NErnst Breisach, Historiography: Classic, Medieval, and Modern, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 98.
BBreisach, Ernst. Historiography: Classic, Medieval, and Modern. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Single Chapter/Essay in an Edited Book
N1 Rosemary Foot, "Making Known the Unknown: Policy Analysis of the Korean Conflict since the Early 1980s," in American in the World: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations Since 1941, ed., Michael J. Hogan (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 293.
BFoot, Rosemary. "Making Known the Unknown: Policy Analysis of the Korean Conflict since the Early 1980s." In American in the World: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations Since 1941, edited by Michael J. Hogan, 270-299. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Journal Article in Print
NE. P. Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism," Past & Present 38, no. 1 (1967): 57.
BThompson, E. P. "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism." Past & Present 38, no. 1 (1967): 56-97.
Journal Article Online
N1 Gabrielle M. Spiegel, "Presidential Address: The Task of the Historian," The American Historical Review 114, no. 1 (February 2009): 13. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/ahr.114.1.1 [accessed month dayyear].
BSpiegel, Gabrielle M. "Presidential Address: The Task of the Historian." The American Historical Review 114, no. 1 (February 2009): 1-15. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/ahr.114.1.1 [accessed month dayyear].
Editor or Translator in Addition to an Author
N1 Theodore W. Adorno and Walter Benjamin, The Complete Correspondence, 1928-1940, ed. Henri Lonitz, trans. Nicholas Walker (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 212.
BAdorno, Theodore W., and Walter Benjamin. The Complete Correspondence, 1928-1940. Edited by Henri Lonitz. Translated by Nicholas Walker. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
A Volume in a Multi-Volume Work
N1 Jaroslav Pelikan, Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (Since 1700), vol. 5 of The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 16.
BPelikan, Jaroslav. Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700), Vol. 5 of The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Magazine Article
N1 Mark Schapiro, "New Power for 'Old Europe,'" The Nation, December 22. 2004, 12-13.
BSchapiro, Mark. "New Power for 'Old Europe.'" The Nation, December 22. 2004.
Website
N1 Steven Kreis, "Lecture 9: �crasez l'inf�me!: The Triumph of Science and the Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophe," The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture9a.html [accessed month dayyear].
BKreis, Steven. "Lecture 9: �crasez l'inf�me!: The Triumph of Science and the Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophe." The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture9a.html [accessed month dayyear].


Facts of Publication: The facts of publication contain three elements: (1) the place of publication (2) the name of the publisher, and (3) the date of publication. The place of publication for any book specifies the city where the publisher's editorial offices are located. Here are a few general guidelines:
  • When two cities are listed, always use the first, eg., Chicago and London would be rendered as Chicago.
  • If the city is well-known or cannot be confused with another, then use the city and not city and state/country. With that in mind, the following cities can stand by themselves: Chicago, New York, Paris, Berkeley, Baltimore, Princeton, Los Angeles, Tokyo, New Delhi, London, Leiden
  • There is at least one case where the the name of a city can be confused: Cambridge. However, if the publisher is Harvard University Press or (MIT Press), then I have no problem using "Cambridge: Harvard University Press." If the publisher is Cambridge University Press, then "Cambridge: Cambridge University Press" is also acceptable." Here's where it gets interesting. Most of the books published by Cambridge in the United States are published in New York, so your citation will almost always look like this, "New York: Cambridge University Press."
  • If the place of publication is not well-known, then you will need to be more specific. Here are a few examples: Westport, CT; Springfield, MA; Harmondsworth, UK.
About Using Ibid.: The word Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word, Ibidem, which means "in the same place." Writers use the word Ibid. to "shorten a citation to a work whose bibliographical date appears in the immediately previous note." (155) Please note that Ibid. is always capitalized and, because it is an abbreviation, it is always followed by a period.
About Shortened Notes: After you have given the full bibliographic details for a work, what happens if you want to quote that same source a few pages later? Simple - use a shortened "author-title" note.
Example - Footnotes
E. P. Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism," Past & Present 38, no. 1 (1967): 57.
Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Classic, Medieval, and Modern, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 98.
3 Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism," 59-60.
4 Ibid., 88.
Ibid.
6 Breisach, Historiography, 101.
7 E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1966), 545.
8 Ibid., 566.
9 Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism," 97.
10 Thompson, Making of the English Working Class, 567.
11 Ibid.
12 Ibid., 594.
13 Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994), 185.
14 E. P. Thompson, "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,"  Past & Present 50, no. 1 (1971): 78.
15Thompson, Making of the English Working Class, 147.
16 Appleby, Hunt, and Jacob, Telling the Truth About History, 188.
17 Ibid.
18 Thompson, Making of the English Working Class, 149.
19 Thompson, "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism," 90.
Example - Bibliography
Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth About History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Breisach, Ernst. Historiography: Classic, Medieval, and Modern. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Thompson, E. P. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.
_____. "The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century."  Past & Present 50, no. 1 (1971): 76-136.
_____. "Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism." Past & Present 38, no. 1 (1967): 56-97.

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